The energy world has its “giants”, supplying an every-increasing market and demand and which, in addition, represent the potential of our resources: these are “supergiants”, the deposits with the largest reserves in the world. How many are there? Where are they? Which companies operate them? Here is a small identikit of our energy giants…
Supergiants have the largest reserves in the entire world. As regards oilfields, we are talking about volumes of reserves in excess of 5,000 million barrels. As for natural gas fields, these involve reserves exceeding 850 billion cubic meters.
Approximately 90 supergiant deposits have been discovered in the world, of which 60 oil and 30 gas. As shown in this map, the supergiants are heavily concentrated in the Middle East – Saudi Arabia (11), Iraq (7), United Arab Emirates (5), Iran (6) – and in the other major producing countries, Venezuela (3) and Russia (14).
These oil and gas fields are controlled and operated largely by national oil companies. Eni currently participates in the development of three supergiant fields (Zubair/Iraq, Kashagan and Karachaganak/Kazakhistan) and recently discovered two major gas supergiants: Mamba (Mozambique, 2011) and Zohr (Egypt, August 2015).
The discovery of a supergiant is a very exceptional event in the history of oil, particularly over the last 30 years, and often coincides with the discovery of new mineral provinces, such as, for example, the Rovuma basin in the deep water of Mozambique, where Eni discovered the Mamba gas supergiant, or the pre-salt layer of the Santos Basin in Brazil (Lula, Iara, Libra and Buzios oil supergiants).